The urinary system (also called the excretory system) works to eliminate waste from the body, says Paul Perito MD. It utilizes the nutrients from food and converts those nutrients to energy that the body needs to survive. Paul Perito MD notes that the waste left behind is deposited in the bladder, the bowels or the blood. Here’s a closer look at how each component of the urinary system works to keep the human body healthy.
Kidneys – The kidney’s primary function is to remove non-solidified waste from the blood stream. Paul Perito MD says the waste is called urea and it mixes with other fluids, including water, to form urine. Urea is filtered through nephrons and then passes through the renal tubes of the kidney, explains Paul Perito MD. Additionally, notes Paul Perito MD, the kidneys keep the body’s sodium level stable and produce the hormone (erythropoietin) that assists red blood cell formation.
Ureters – According to Paul Perito MD, the kidneys are connected to the bladder via narrow tubes called ureters. The ureters work continually to force urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Paul Perito MD says that kidney infections may develop, however, if urine remains in the kidneys for too long.
Bladder – The bladder, says Paul Perito MD, is a hollow organ shaped like a triangle and located in the lower portion of the abdomen. It’s held stationary by a set of ligaments that are attached to the pelvic bone as well as other organs. The walls of the bladder expand and relax for urine storage and flatten and contract to allow urine to flow through the urethra. Paul Perito MD notes that around 2 cups of urine can be stored by a healthy adult for up to five hours. Interestingly, the body produces a coating that protects the bladder’s tissue by discouraging bacterial growth on the bladder wall, adds Paul Perito MD.
Sphincter Muscles – These circular shaped muscles, says Paul Perito MD, prevent urine leakage by exerting pressure around the opening of the bladder. Artificial sphincters are sometimes used as a treatment for urinary incontinence.
Nerves of the Bladder – According to Paul Perito MD, these are the nerves that tell the brain when it’s time to urinate. Damage to these nerves may result in the urge incontinence.
Urethra – This tube is connected to the bladder and forces urine out of the body when the nerves tell the brain that the bladder must be emptied. Paul Perito MD points out that the sphincter muscles must work in conjunction with the urethra to allow urine to exit.
When all of these components function properly, reports Paul Perito MD, normal urination will occur. When they do not, however, they are all susceptible to infection, which will require medical treatment and antibiotics.
Urological surgeon Paul Perito MD has devoted his professional career to treating men suffering from Erectile Dysfunction. He is the founder and namesake of Miami’s Perito Urology, where he conceived and initiated the world’s first minimally invasive approach to penile implantation. Paul Perito MD has performed over 3000 of these procedures on men across the globe who enjoy a shorter recovery time and less scarring than traditional implantation methods. Since 1995, Paul Perito MD and Perito Urology have become synonymous with effective erectile dysfunction treatment and world-class service unparalleled anywhere in the nation. He is a graduate of the University of Maryland Medical School as well as a frequent contributor to text published by medical journals nationwide.
The information contained in this article is provided by Paul Perito MD for educational purposes only. It is not intended to treat or diagnose any condition.